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How to control the production

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, An overview of production control

Imposition of controls on production activities, primarily the use of Cybernetics in the principle of negative feedback control search and feed-forward control of the precautionary principle, which are designed to output control system at predetermined target range. Main modes of production control, negative feedback and feedforward control in two, this is defined according to the production management features control modes.

The history of development of production management and control mode has a characteristic evolution first is ex-post control, then control, then the prior control. This is from the time a method for defining management activities. Ex-post control and things are using negative feedback control principle, principle of prior control using feedforward control.

The actual operation, the three kinds of control methods (ex-post controls, control and advance control) is generally used in conjunction. Ex-post control is the basic and most common one way, but the effect is not as good as control and advance. On may occasions should make greater use of controls and control beforehand. Taiwan consultant Chen Yantan doing analysis, Chinese enterprises is dominated by ex-post controls, operating the least effective; United States enterprises to control as seen in operating results; Japan prior control of enterprise's strong suits, works best.

Enterprises can define control from the employee's participation, centralized control and distributed control in two ways. Centralized control suitable in more variety and minor batch types, require companies to have adequate management information system, MRP II system is representative of a very successful way of centralized control. Decentralized control types suitable for variety and small batch production, requires that a company has a strict management system, flexible management tools, emphasizing the corporate culture of employee ownership, lean production system (TPS) is a very successful on behalf of.
Second, the basic process of production control

Production process includes three phases, namely, measuring, control, decision-making, implementation, and control objectives from the planning function is complete. But the current reality is that corporate control is very thin, awareness is also ambiguous, production planning control objective indicators and standards of value are not complete and thus set standards can be used as one of the Basic program.

(A) development of criteria

Standard-setting is the human, material and financial resources in the production process, product quality, production quantity, production schedule to provide for a number of boundaries. It can be expressed in physical quantities, can also be expressed as a quantity of money, including indicators of production plans, consumption, quality indicators, stock levels, expenditures limits, and so on. Control calls for rational and feasible. Standard-setting methods generally have the following:

1, the analogy. Refer to our historical levels to develop standard or reference to the advanced level of the same industry standard-setting. This approach is simple, relatively objective standard is feasible.

2, the decomposition method. Indicators by sector product business layer is decomposed into a small indicator, as control objectives for each production unit. This approach plays an important role in cost control.

3, norm method. Shall be consumed in the production process to the required standards, including labour consumption quota and material consumption quota.

4, standardized method. According to standards established by the authority as its own control standards. Such as international standards, national standards, award criteria, as well as industry standards, and so on. This method is used in the quality control more. Of course, can also be used for development of work processes or operating standards.

(B) measurement

Measurements are obtained by statistical means system output values, and scheduled control standards for comparative analysis, discovery of deviations. Deviations are positive and negative points, positive deviation indicates the destination value is greater than the actual value, negative deviation indicates the actual value is greater than the target value, significance of Cybernetics of positive and negative deviations, depending on the specific control object may be. As for output, profits, productivity, indicates that there is no standard deviations, controls need to be considered. For objectives such as cost, work, consumption, are superior to the control standard. In practice these concepts are clear, no confusion.

(C) control decisions

Control decisions based on causes of deviation proposed control measures used to correct deviations. General steps are:

1, analyze the causes. Effective control must begin with the most basic cause of runaway. There is start from the appearance of control measures can be effective, but it is often at the cost of another goal. Causes a control objective control sometimes have a variety of reasons, objective pragmatic analysis to do so.

2, the development of measures. From a major cause of runaway, studies on control measures. Conventional wisdom is that the control measures is mainly regulation enter resources and proven production systems it is not enough, but also to check the reasonableness of the plan, and organizational measures will improve. In short, we should fully take into account all factors in order to find effective measures.

3, analysis of results expected. Production system is a great system, you can't use experimental methods to verify that controls. However, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the control effect analysis of control measures must be done. Qualified enterprises can use computer simulation method. General methods of reasoning can be used, that is conceptually analyze situations may arise after implementation of control measures, as far as possible so that control measures are developed to be more careful.

(D) implementation.

This is the last item in the control, is made up of a series of specific actions. How are control measures implemented, directly affects the control effect, if poorly implemented, the entire controlling activities to fall short. Accountability in implementation, supervision and inspection in a timely manner.

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